The New York Subway: Chapter 09, Signal System

From nycsubway.org

Early in the development of the plans for the subway system in New York City, it was foreseen that the efficiency of operation of a road with so heavy a traffic as is being provided for would depend largely upon the completeness of the block signaling and interlocking systems adopted for spacing and directing trains. On account of the importance of this consideration, not only for safety of passengers, but also for conducting operation under exacting schedules, it was decided to install the most complete and effective signaling system procurable. The problem involved the prime consideration of:

  • Safety and reliability.
  • Greatest capacity of the lines consistent with the above.
  • Facility of operation under necessarily restricted yard and track conditions.

In order to obtain the above desiderata it was decided to install a complete automatic block signal system for the high-speed routes, block protection for all obscure points on the low-speed routes, and to operate all switches both for line movements and in yards by power from central points. This necessarily involved the interconnection of the block and switch movements at many locations and made the adoption of the most flexible and compact appliances essential.

Of the various signal systems in use it was found that the one promising entirely satisfactory results was the electro-pneumatic block and interlocking system, by which power in any quantity could be readily conducted in small pipes any distance and utilized in compact apparatus in the most restricted spaces. The movements could be made with the greatest promptness and certainty and interconnected for the most complicated situations for safety. Moreover, all essential details of the system had been worked Out in years of practical operation on important trunk lines of railway, so that its reliability and efficiency were beyond question.

The application of such a system to the New York subway involved an elaboration of detail not before attempted upon a railway line of similar length, and the contract for its installation is believed to be the largest single order ever given to a signal manufacturing company.

In the application of an automatic block system to an electric railway where the rails are used for the return circuit of the propulsion current, it is necessary to modify the system as usually applied to a steam railway and introduce a track circuit control that will not be injuriously influenced by the propulsion current. This had been successfully accomplished for moderately heavy electric railway traffic in the Boston elevated installation, which was the first electric railway to adopt a complete automatic block signal system with track circuit control.

The New York subway operation, however, contemplated traffic of unprecedented density and consequent magnitude of the electric currents employed, and experience with existing track circuit control systems led to the conclusion that some modification in apparatus was essential to prevent occasional traffic delays.

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Photo by: IRT Company
Location: Interborough Subway

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Photo by: IRT Company
Location: Interborough Subway

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Photo by: IRT Company
Location: Interborough Subway

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Photo by: IRT Company
Location: Interborough Subway

The proposed operation contemplates a possible maximum of two tracks loaded with local trains at one minute intervals, and two tracks with eight car express trains at two minute intervals, the latter class of trains requiring at times as much as 2,000 horse power for each train in motion. It is readily seen, then, that combinations of trains in motion may at certain times occur which will throw enormous demands for power upon a given section of the road. The electricity conveying this power flows back through the track rails to the power station and in so doing is subject to a "drop" or loss in the rails which varies in amount according to the power demands. This causes disturbances in the signal-track circuit in proportion to the amount of "drop," and it was believed that under the extreme condition above mentioned the ordinary form of track circuit might prove unreliable and cause delay to traffic. A solution of the difficulty was suggested, consisting in the employment of a current in the signal track circuit which would have such characteristic differences from that used to propel the trains as would separate selectively upon an apparatus which would in turn control the signal. Alternating current supplied this want on account of its inductive properties, and was adopted, after a demonstration of its practicability under similar conditions elsewhere.

After a decision was reached as to the system to lie employed, the arrangement of the block sections was considered from the standpoint of maximum safety and maximum traffic capacity, as it was realized that the rapidly increasing traffic of Greater New York would almost at once tax the capacity of the line to its utmost.

The usual method of installing automatic block signals in the United States is to provide home and distant signals with the block sections extending from home signal to home signal; that is, the block sections end at the home signals and do not overlap each other. This is also the arrangement of block sections where the telegraph block or controlled manual systems are in use. The English block systems, however, all employ overlaps. Without the overlap, a train in passing from one block section to the other will clear the home signals for the section in the rear, as soon as the rear of the train has passed the home signal of the block in which it is moving. It is thus possible for a train to stop within the block and within a few feet of this home signal. If then, a following train should for any reason overrun this home signal, a collision would result. With the overlap system, however, a train may stop at any point in a block section and still have the home signal at a safe stopping distance in the rear of the train.

Conservative signaling is all in favor of the overlap, on account of the safety factor, in case the signal is accidentally overrun. Another consideration was the use of automatic train stops. These stops are placed at the home signals, and it is thus essential that a stopping distance should be afforded in advance of the home signal to provide for stopping the train to which the brake had been applied by the automatic stop.

Ordinarily, the arrangement of overlap sections increases the length of block sections by the length of the overlap, and as the length of the section fixed the minimum spacing of trains, it was imperative to make the blocks as short as consistent with safety, in order not to cut down the carrying capacity of the railway. This led to a study of the special problem presented by subway signaling and a development of a blocking system upon lines which it is believed are distinctly in advance of anything heretofore done in this direction.

Block section lengths are governed by speed and interval between trains. Overlap lengths are determined by the distance in which a train can be stopped at a maximum speed. Usually the block section length is the distance between signals, plus the overlap; but where maximum traffic capacity is desired the block section length can be reduced to the length of two overlaps, and this was the system adopted for the Interborough. The three systems of blocking trains, with and without overlaps, is shown diagramatically on page 143, where two successive trains are shown at the minimum distances apart for "clear" running for an assumed stopping distance of 800 feet The system adopted for the subway is shown in line "C," giving the least headway of the three methods.

The length of the overlap was given very careful consideration by the Interborough Rapid Transit Company, who instituted a series of tests of braking power of trains; from these and others made by the Pennsylvania Railroad Company, curves were computed so as to determine the distance in which trains could he stopped at various rates of speed on a level track, with corrections for rising and falling to grades up to 2 per cent. Speed curves were then plotted for the trains on the entire line, showing at each point the maximum possible speed, with the gear ratio of the motors adopted. A joint consideration of the speeds, braking efforts, and profile of the road were then used to determine at each and every point on the line the minimum allowable distance between trains, so that the train in the rear could be stopped by the automatic application of the brakes before reaching a train which might be standing at a signal in advance; in other words, the length of the overlap section was determined by the local conditions at each point.

In order to provide for adverse conditions the actual braking distances was increased by 50 per cent.; for example, the braking distance of a train moving 35 miles an hour is 465 feet, this would be increased 50 per cent. and the overlap made not less than 697 feet. With this length of overlap the home signals could be located 697 feet apart, and the block section length would be double this or 1394 feet. The average length of overlaps, as laid out, is about 800 feet, and the length of block sections double this, or 1,600 feet.

The protection provided by this unique arrangement of signals is illustrated on page 143. Three positions of train are shown:

"A." MINIMUM distance between trains: The first train has just passed the home signal, the second train is stopped by the home signal in the rear; if this train had failed to stop at this point, the automatic stop would have applied the air brake and the train would have had the overlap distance in which to stop before it could reach the rear of the train in advance; therefore, under the worst conditions, no train can get closer to the train in advance than the length of the overlap, and this is always a safe stopping distance.

"B." CAUTION distance between train: The first train in same position as in "A," the second train at the third home signal in the rear; this signal can be passed under caution, and this distance between trains is the caution distance, and is always equal to the length of the block section, or two overlaps.

"C." CLEAR distance between trains: First train in same position as in "A," second train at the fourth home signal in the rear; at this point both the home and distant signals are clear, and the distance between the trains is now the clear running distance; that is, when the trains are one block section plus an overlap apart they can move under clear signal, and this distance is used in determining the running schedule. It will be noted in "C" that the first train has the following protection: Home signals 1 and 2 in stop position, together with the automatic stop at signal 2 in position to stop a train, distant signal 1, 2, and 3 all at caution, or, in other words, a train that has stopped is always protected by two home signals in its rear, and by three caution signals; in addition to this an automatic stop placed at a safe stopping distance in the rear of the train.

Description of Block Signaling System

The block signaling system as installed consists of automatic overlapping system above described applied to the two express tracks between City Hall and 96th Street, a distance of six and one-half miles, or thirteen miles of track; and to the third track between 96th and 145th Streets on the West Side branch, a distance of two and one-half miles. This third track is placed between the two local tracks, and will be used for express traffic in both directions, trains moving toward the City Hall in the morning and in the opposite direction at night; also the two tracks from 145th Street to Dyckman Street, a distance of two and one-half miles, or five miles of track. The total length of track protected by signals is twenty-four and one-half miles.

The small amount of available space in the subway made it necessary to design a special form of the signal itself. Clearances would not permit of a "position" signal indication, and, further, a position signal purely was not suitable for the lighting conditions of the subway. A color signal was therefore adopted conforming to the adopted rules of the American Railway Association. It consists of an iron case fitted with two white lenses, the upper being the home signal and the lower the distant. Suitable colored glasses are mounted in slides which are operated by pneumatic cylinders placed in the base of the case. Home and dwarf signals show a red light for the danger or "stop" indication. Distant signals show a yellow light for the "caution" indication. All signals show a green light for the "proceed" or clear position. Signals in the subway are constantly lighted by two electric lights placed back of each white lens, so that the lighting will be at all times reliable.

On the elevated structure, semaphore signals of the usual type are used. The signal lighting is supplied by a special alternating current circuit independent of the power and general lighting circuits.

A train stop or automatic stop of the Kinsman system is used at all block signals, and at many interlocking signals. This is a device for automatically applying the air brakes to the train if it should pass a signal in the stop position. This is an additional safeguard only to be brought into action when the danger indication has for any reason been disregarded, and insures the maintenance of the minimum distance between trains as provided by the overlaps established.

Great care has been given to the design, construction, and installation of the signal apparatus, so as to insure reliability of operation under the most adverse conditions, and to provide for accessibility to all the parts for convenience in maintenance. The system for furnishing power to operate and control the signals consists of the following:

Two 500-volt alternating current feed mains run the entire length of the signal system. These mains are fed by seven direct-current motor-driven generators operated in multiple located in the various power sub-stations. Any four of these machines are sufficient to supply the necessary current for operating the system. Across these alternating mains are connected the primary coils of track transformers located at each signal, the secondaries of which supply current of about 10 volts to the rails of the track sections. Across the rails at the opposite end of the section is connected the track relay, the moving element of which operates a contact. This contact controls a local direct-current circuit operating, by compressed air, the signal and automatic train stop.

Direct current is furnished by two mains extending the length of the system, which are fed by eight sets of 16-volt storage batteries in duplicate. These batteries are located in the subway at the various interlocking towers, and are charged by motor generators, one of which is placed at each set of batteries. These motor generators are driven by direct current from the third rail and deliver direct current of 25 volts.

The compressed air is supplied by six air compressors, one located at each of the following sub-stations: Nos. 11, 12, 13, 14, 16, and 17. Three of these are reserve compressors. They are motor-driven by direct-current motors, taking current from the direct-current bus bars at sub-stations at from 400 to 700 volts. The capacity of each compressor is 230 cubic feet.

The motor-driven air compressors are controlled by a governor which responds to a variation of air pressure of five pounds or less. When the pressure has reached a predetermined point the machine is stopped and the supply of cooling water shut off. When the pressure has fallen a given amount, the machine is started light, and when at full speed the load is thrown on and the cooling water circulation reestablished. Oiling of cylinders and bearings is automatic, being supplied only while the machines are running.

Two novel safety devices having to do especially with the signaling may be here described. The first is an emergency train stop. It is designed to place in the hands of station attendants, or others, the emergency control of signals. The protection afforded is similar in principle to the emergency brake handle found in all passenger cars, but operates to warn all trains of an extraneous danger condition. It has been shown in electric railroading that an accident to apparatus, perhaps of slight moment, may cause an unreasoning panic, on account of which passengers may wander on adjoining tracks in face of approaching trains. To provide as perfectly as practicable for such conditions, it has been arranged to loop the control of signals into an emergency box set in a conspicuous position in each station platform. The pushing of a button on this box, similar to that of the fire-alarm signal, will set all signals immediately adjacent to stations in the face of trains approaching, so that all traffic may be stopped until the danger condition is removed.

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Photo by: IRT Company
Location: Interborough Subway

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Photo by: IRT Company
Location: Interborough Subway

The second safety appliance is the "section break" protection. This consists of a special emergency signal placed in advance of each separate section of the third rail; that is, at points where trains move from a section fed by one sub-station to that fed by another. Under such conditions the contact shoes of the train temporarily span the break in the third rail. In case of a serious overload or ground on one section, the train-wiring would momentarily act as a feeder for the section, and thus possibly blow the train fuses and cause delay. In order, therefore, to prevent trains passing into a dangerously overloaded section, an overload relay has been installed at each section break to set a "stop" signal in the face of an approaching train, which holds the train until the abnormal condition is removed.

The to-and-fro movement of a dense traffic on a four-track railway requires a large amount of switching, especially when each movement is complicated by junctions of two or more lines. Practically every problem of trunk line train movement, including two, three, and four-track operation, had to be provided for in the switching plants of the subway. Further, the problem was complicated by the restricted clearances and vision attendant upon tunnel construction, It was estimated that the utmost flexibility of operation should be provided for, and also that every movement be certain, quick, and safe.

All of the above, which are referred to in the briefest terms only, demanded that all switching movements should be made through the medium of power-operated interlocking plants. These plants in the subway portions of the line are in all cases electro-pneumatic, while in the elevated portions of the line mechanical interlocking has been, in some cases, provided.

A list of the separate plants installed will be interesting, and is given below:

City Hall332
Spring Street210
14th Street216
18th Street14
42nd Street215
72d Street215
96th Street219
100th Street16
103d Street16
110th Street212
116th Street212
Manhattan Viaduct112
137th Street217
145th Street219
Dyckman Street112
216th Street114
135th Street26
Lenox Junction17
i45th Street19
Lenox Avenue Yard135
Third and Westchester Avenue Junction113
St. Anna Avenue124
Freeman Street112
176th Street266

The total number of signals, both block and interlocking, is as follows:

  • Home signals: 354
  • Dwarf signals: 160
  • Distant signals: 187
  • Total: 691
  • Total number of switches: 224

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Photo by: IRT Company
Location: Interborough Subway

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Photo by: IRT Company
Location: Interborough Subway

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Photo by: IRT Company
Location: Interborough Subway

It will be noted that in the case of the City Hall Station three separate plants are required, all of considerable size, and intended for constant use for a multiplicity of movements. It is, perhaps, unnecessary to state that all the mechanism of these important interlocking plants is of the most substantial character and provided with all the necessary safety appliances and means for rapidly setting up the various combinations. The interlocking machines are housed in steel concrete "towers," so that the operators may be properly protected and isolated in the performance of their duties.

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